If you are the Plaintiff in a personal injury case and you file bankruptcy, it is generally a good idea to file a suggestion of bankruptcy to alert the court to the bankruptcy filing. Most courts will temporary delay the hearing of the case, however 11 U.S.C. s. 362 is not designed for this application.
Ultimately, the suit itself is an asset of the bankruptcy estate. Like any other asset, it may be exempt depending on the value of the potential claim. In the event that it is not exempt (and at all times before being abandoned by the trustee), the Trustee steps into the plaintiff's shoes during the administration of the bankruptcy estate. The Chapter 7 trustee may then offer to settle, or compel the debtor to pursue the suit (although the Trustee will bear the cost of compensating counsel for any post-petition legal fees). Any proceeds obtained during the suit (less any exempt portions of any receipts) will be turned over to the trustee as property of the bankruptcy estate and distributed to creditors. Note that there are additional exemptions for personal injury cases in bankruptcy:
1. $22,975 for personal injury damages, but not any recovery for pain and suffering or pecuniary loss
2. 100% of any award for loss of future earnings needed for support
3. 100% of any recovery for wrongful death of person you were a dependent of needed for support, and
4. 100% of any award of compensation received for being a crime victim.
5. Pain and suffering and pecuniary loss damages may be exempted under the wildcard exemption and/or unused home equity exemptions 11 U.S.C. 522 (d)(5).
Therefore, if you are a personal injury plaintiff and file for bankruptcy during the pendency of your case or the possibility of bankruptcy is on the horizon at the conclusion of your case, it is important to work with your personal injury attorney to structure the settlement of your case in a way that maximizes the potential exemptions.
- If you are close to a personal injury settlement, make sure you consult with a bankruptcy attorney first.
- Try to settle out the PI case before filing. A right to sue is an asset, and can be taken by the trustee if not exempt, and the trustee then decides how to settle the case.
- Make sure your PI attorney considers how to structure your settlement in a way that protects as much of the judgment as possible: there are limits to the amount of personal injury damages that can be exempted ($21,625.00), but awards for future medical payments, lost earnings, disability payments, wrongful death and crime victims reparations are exempt 100%.